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Brief Introduction of Directive 88/378/EEC Efficiency Requirements for Hot-water Boilers fired with liquid or gaseous fuels


Directive 88/378/EEC Efficiency Requirements for Hot-water Boilers fired with liquid or gaseous fuels

  1. This Directive, which comes under the SAVE programme concerning the promotion of energy efficiency in the Community, determines the efficiency requirements applicable to new hot-water boilers fired by liquid or gaseous fuels with a rated output of no less than 4 kW and no more than 400 kW, hereinafter called 'boilers'.
  2. For the purposes of this Directive:
    • boiler: the combined boiler body-burner unit, designed to transmit to water the heat released from burning,
    • appliance
    • the boiler body designed to have a burner fitted,
    • the burner designed to be fitted to a boiler body,
    • effective rated output (expressed in kW): the maximum calorific output laid down and guaranteed by the manufacturer as being deliverable during continuous operation while complying with the useful efficiency indicated by the manufacturer,
    • useful efficiency (expressed in %): the ratio between the heat output transmitted to the boiler water and the product of the net calorific value at constant fuel pressure and the consumption expressed as a quantity of fuel per unit time,
    • part load (expressed in %): the ratio between the effective output of a boiler operating intermittently or at an output lower than the effective rated output and the same effective rated output;
    • average temperature of the boiler water: the average of the water temperatures at the entry and exit of the boiler,
    • standard boiler: a boiler for which the average water temperature can be restricted by design,
    • back-boiler: a boiler designed to supply a central-heating system and to be installed in a fireplace recess as part of a back boiler/gas fire combination,
    • low-temperature boiler: a boiler which can work continuously with a water supply temperature of 35 to 40o C, possibly producing condensation in certain circumstances, including condensing boilers using liquid fuel,
    • gas condensing boiler: a boiler designed to condense permanently a large part of the water vapour contained in the combustion gases,
    • boiler to be installed in the living space: a boiler with an effective rated output of less than 37 kW, designed to provide heat to the part of the living space in which it is installed by means of the emission of heat from the casing having an open expansion chamber, supplying hot water using gravity circulation; such boilers shall bear on their casings the explicit indication that they must be installed in living space.
  3. The following shall be excluded from this Directive:
    • hot-water boilers capable of being fired by different fuels including solid fuels,
    • equipment for the instantaneous preparation of hot water,
    • boilers designed to be fired by fuels the properties of which differ appreciably from the properties of the liquid and gaseous fuels commonly marketed (industrial waste gas, biogas, etc),
    • cookers and appliances designed mainly to heat the premises in which they are installed and, as a subsidiary function, to supply hot water for central heating and sanitary hot water,
    • appliances with rated outputs of less than 6 kW using gravity circulation and designed solely for the production of stored sanitary hot water,
    • boilers manufactured on a one-off basis.

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Requirements for Affixing of the CE Marking

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The CE Marking must be affixed to the product, to its data plate or, where this is not possible or not warranted due to the nature of the product, to its packaging, if any, and to the accompanying documents by the manufacturer, the authorized representative in the European Community or, in exceptional cases, by those responsible for placing the product on the market.

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The CE Marking is a kind of trade passport for the European marketplace: it allows the manufacturer to freely circulate their product throughout the 18 countries of the European Economic Area (EEA).

There is only one set of requirements and procedures to comply with in designing and manufacturing a product for the entire EEA. Various conflicting national regulations are eliminated. As a result, the product no longer needs to be adapted to the specific requirements of the different member states of the EEA.

In addition, it may be considered a benefit that by implementing the requirements, the product will be safer for the user and this may also reduce damage and liability claims.


The need of CE marking

The European CE certification procedure has been mainly set up to:
  • Harmonize all varying national regulations for consumer and industrial products in European Member States, so that the Single Market is encouraged;
  • Bring about cost savings for producers;
  • Enhance the safety of products;
  • Supply public bodies with a uniform procedure that can be checked.
With the help of the conformity assessment procedures, the authorities can ascertain that the products that are placed on the market comply with the requirements as stated in the regulations of the directives. The CE marking is consequently largely for the benefit of the authorities. However, safe products are also necessary for the end user in the work or consumer environment.

Requirements for Affixing of the CE Marking

The CE Marking must be affixed to the product, to its data plate or, where this is not possible or not warranted due to the nature of the product, to its packaging, if any, and to the accompanying documents by the manufacturer, the authorized representative in the European Community or, in exceptional cases, by those responsible for placing the product on the market.


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